Top Christian Clothing Apparel and T Shirts

Traditional clothing (folk costume) is one of the factors that has differentiated this nation from neighboring countries, dating back as far as the Illyrian era
[1] The evolution this attire has undergone, has been in service of modernization and contemporary style, however, the fundamental symbols and motives by which these garments are designed tend to resemble Illyrian antiquity
[2] The materials and the traditional ways by which these clothes have been made throughout history have not changed much
The utilities which are used in the creation of these clothes are characteristically Kosovar, called vegjë or vek, which is a loom (resembling the English spinning jenny and flying shuttle)
The methods of obtaining the materials and clothes have remained the same
The motifs and patterns on these garments can be explained by prehistoric religion
Triangles, rhombuses, circles and crosses occur frequently,and they are known as symbols of health and fertility
[2] Chromatically, there are three main colors in these clothes, the most symbolic of which is red
Among 140 types of traditional Albanian costumes, the Podgur’s attire Veshja e Podgurit is Kosovar, differentiated by its variety and is an influence in all other regions
[3] This costume belonged to the majority of the Illyrian and Albanian regions included in the international framework
The clothing items consist of the shirts of men and women, which are wide sleeved with a narrow collar which was buttoned up and a white traditional hat worn by men called plis, leather moccasins or opinga
According to archaeologists of the Museum of Pristina, Podgur’s clothing dates back to the 5th and 4th century BC
[3] However, transformations of this costume happened due to different social and cultural situations, technical inventions and also element exchange between the ethnic groups
From field investigation, it has been reported that in the 19th century and the first two decades of the 20th century, women’s clothing went through morphological changes
[4] The 19th-century look consisted of the combing of their hair and braiding them
They also wore red semi-spherical shaped hats which were embellished with tiny gold coins
Around the crown of the hat they wore a tight lace, lidhëse, which was 60 cm long
It was tied so that their hair remained hidden
Marhama is a type of material which was worn along their neck and chin, but the embroidered tail of marhama was laid down along the right shoulder, and it was called masdorja
[4] The shirt was of foot-length and the sleeves were long and wide, approximately 35 cm and also embroidered
Shtjellakët (pështjellakët, mbështjellakët) which were pieces of material that resemble an apron, were big in size and tight in width, and it had geometrical motives, such as an axe or a circle
The moccasins were made from the skin of cattle and knitted with pieces of sheep skin
They were called gogishte moccasins
As belts, they wore woolen material called shokë which were knitted using a loom
It was of 3 cm width, and the embroidered part was tied on the back
Their colors were very characteristic and different, such as red, green, yellow and black
[5] Children of rich families had their clothes knitted by tailors and that made them look like any other grown man
From puberty and on, children’s clothing becomes more detailed
In this age boys start to wear plis, where as in cold days they wore scarfs and tirqe, traditional white woolen pants
In the celibacy age boys wore tirqe (which were always white ), plis and vests
However, children clothing in general is characterized by its simplicity
It consists of a knee length shirt which is made of white fabric combined with vertical shokë which was of chestnut color
The wearing of shokë by children was very rare ; it was only worn during the years they were celibate and wanted to impress women their social circle
[5] In youngster clothing, the white and black color were worn more often, whereas blazers were also enriched with red, yellow, green, and brown
During cold weather, youngsters also wore a certain type of hat called kapulace
It was made of woolen threads which were skull-shaped and they covered every part of the head and face except the eyes and nose
Blazers were also part of the youngster attire and were made of soutane, resembling the adult costume
Boys wore shoulder-length hair
[6] Before costumes were knitted by tailors, the models were first cut out in Peć
This was done once a year, during fall or winter
Men’s clothing was the symbol of beauty at the time
This attire includes a shirt, tëlinat which were long briefs, a scarf and tirqe
There were differences among the clothing of adults, based on their economical standing
In the men clothing framework, the groom’s attire was the most symbolic one
The costume is built upon the symbolic meaning of starting a new phase of life
Men of Podgur used to wear white semi-spherical plis
Along with it there was also a scarf made of white fabric which consisted of a few horizontal shokë of different colors
This scarf was circled around plis and covered a part of their head and ears
Scarfs were worn by men of older age, around their forties
Men’s shirts were called “chestnut shirts” because they were made of horizontal shokë of chestnut color
“Chestnut shirts” are rarely seen today, except in mountain regions
Blazers were the items worn over shirts
The part among the sleeves, the collar and arms contained of a black stripe
The vest or xhamadani made of soutane was wide sleeved and reached the waist in length and had no collar
It was buttoned up with a clasp
The vest was double-breasted, and it was of black color
In cold weather, they used to wear a type of blazer called mitani and was made of soutane material
It was randomly worn over the vest or xhamadani
It had long sleeves, but no collar
The black strap covered the parts along the sleeves, around the neck and along the elbows
Mitani had an opening from the armpits to the elbows, and these openings were used to hold mitani freely
On the left part, a small pocket was sewn where men used to keep their cigars
Mitani was also worn by youngsters, but it was simpler than the mitani of men
Among the traditional clothing of Podgur’s men, xhurdia which is a type of clothing worn by young boys is mostly known and symbolizes pride
It was made of soutane and tailors were usually the ones who made it
It had long and tight sleeves, open-chested, waist-length, and had a loose part at the back
Besides xhurdia there is also japanxhija which was a clothing of shepherds
However, it was also worn by others in cases of bad weather or long journeys
During nighttime, it was also used as a type of cover
It was made of white soutane along with black stripes, and it was also sleeveless and foot-length whereas its width depended on the length, taking form into a cone-shaped model
Along the belt the red shokë was worn which was older than the colorful shokë
Its length had to be long enough to be wrapped around the waist 5 times
Tëlinat or the long briefs were made of linen, from which their name originates
Later on these long briefs were also made of fabric using a loom
The edges were embroidered and were 20 cm wide
During summer time men used to wear tëlina along with a shirt which was called the shirt of tire
Shokë was tied around the waist, making the shirt resemble a kilt
Tirqe were made of soutane, which varied in quality based on the amount of cord it contained
Tirqe of high quality contained 20 threads of cord
Whereas, the one ones with lower quality had 2-3 threads of cord
The economical status determined which ones they wore
Nevertheless, traditionally white tirqe with black cords were worn in Podgur
Black tirqe were seldom worn by young boys but they were considered infamous because they were worn during the night in order not to attract attention
The socks that they wore were made of sheep wool and were from the toe gore to the heel and sometimes knee -length
Some people used to wear a type of short socks called meste over the previous ones
They were made of the wool and skin of bull, whereas the moccasins were made of sheep skin
After The Second World War, moccasins were made up of threads of different ties and cotton
Instead of opinga they were called yrnek
Men used to wear a lot of accessories at the time, such as rings, qystek të sahatit or otherwise known as pocket watches, etc
Weapons may also be considered as a part of men’s accessory, and the revolver was the most common
Simplicity is what characterizes the attire of old men
Their most important item of clothing was Goxhufi, which was type of a vest and it was made of lamb skin
It had a sleeveless design and sometimes was knee length
They were reversible according to the climate
Girls’ clothing
Even though young girls’ costumes are not considered to be very specific or unique, in contrast to the women’s attire, these costumes have gone through many transformations during their time being
[9] A part of girls’ look was their hairstyle which resembled that of boys
The shirts they wore were the same as those of women, although they were quite more simple
They also used to wear a type of tight skirt called pështjellci which was knee-length and made of woolen threads using a loom
During the last few years, these skirts were also made of linen threads
At the edge of the skirt, different floral designs are embroidered, symbolizing youth and vitality
Their moccasins were identical to those of women
Traditional clothing of young girls has not been completely preserved because of its transition to modernism
Women’s clothing
The transformation of women’s attire mainly happened between the years of World War I and World War II
The semi-spherical shaped hats with gold coin embroidery were replaced with laces, called lidhsa
In the region of Istok, these laces were called hotoz
The fabric shirt was also to change its structure during this period of time
Instead of the fabric shirts, këmisha e arrës which is also a part of men’s clothing was being used more often
The sleeves were shortened to the elbows and they were also tightened
When the sleeves were shortened, a different type of material was used to cover the part of the palm and up to the elbow
These were made of woolen thread and were known as mëngët or sleeves
Often, they were knitted using different colors
Mitani also went through changes; it had long sleeves and a tight collar
It was waist-length and it was deep purple
It was usually sold by tailors
The vest, which is considerably new in the traditional clothing of women, was sleeveless
It did not have a collar, and its motifs were solar and lunar
The material which was used to knit these vests was known as coha and was sold by tailors of Peć, Kosovska Mitrovica and Đakovica
During different journeys, women used to wear jackets called guna and they were made of woolen thread
It was knee-length, wide-sleeved and the parts along the neck were embroidered with threads of black cord
Women also used to wear fur which was seldom that of sheep and known as ‘gala’
It was a sleeveless item of clothing
Tëlinat remained mostly the same, except of the kamzave which were pieces of thicker material and covered the knees
They were usually decorated with different kinds of embroidery
Socks were made out of thick woolen sheep thread and were embellished along the pulps[clarification needed]
These embellishments differentiated due to age
Traditional clothing of women consisted of a lot of accessories, such as earrings, bracelets and rings
Elderly women’s clothing
The differences between the attire of elderly women and those of younger ones are the same as the differences between elderly and young men
Their main characteristic is the simplicity of their clothing
Except for the differences between group ages, the attire has also changed based on occasions
In weddings and other happy occasions, new clothing was worn, whereas in funerals, a specific costume was worn, known as veshja e Harcit
Women’s clothing is better preserved than the men’s in the regions of Kosovo
There are regional variations of the women’s apparel
The most famous apparel was called ‘’pështjellak’’ which consistent of a long white shirt, and two ‘’pështjellak’’ (a white apron), the front and the back one
‘’pështjellaku i parmë’’, or the front apron is as long as the shirt, and it was tailored to fit the woman’s hip
‘’pështjellaku i pasëm’’, the back apron was shorter than the front one
Other components of this clothing were : ‘’tëlina’t’ (traditional underwear), ‘’jeleku’’ –resembles a short vest which was embroidered, ‘’shokë’’ a large woolen material circling the waist, traditional black socks, and different color head scarves
Accessories were very popular among women – golden and silver necklaces, bracelets and rings
The socks were traditionally black, and they were worn with shoes called ‘’opinga’’, made of different animals’ skin
Another equivalently famous apparel is the Xhubleta-clothing
A xhubleta is a bell wavy skirt which is held by two straps on the shoulders, worn on top of a long sleeved white linen shirt
It’s texture consists of long suspended long black straps etched in the material, which was usually chestnut velvet
The socks and shoes were the same as the pështjellak clothing
In the Rugova region (Kosovar West) the xhubleta clothing was worn especially after the Second World War
Veshja e Dukagjinit is most often referred to as the most beautiful of Kosovar clothing
This look consisted of a long sleeved, full length white shirt
The tëlina are also of cotton, but their edges are colorfully embroidered
From the waist up, women wore a sleeveless vest decorated by golden threads, which was open to the front and it would button by beautiful clasps
The two pështjellak are also a characteristic of this clothing
The socks were woolen, and the ‘’opinga’’ were made of cattle skin
The decorative motifs of this region’s clothing are zoological, botanical and geometrical
The motif of the snake, rooster, and the Sun is related to the ancient beliefs of the Illyrian pagans
This garment was by default different for brides, who had sleeves embroidered by asymmetrical patterns of non distinctive colors
The clothing of the southern region of Has is among the distinctive types of clothing in Kosovo
This garment is commonly found today, as it has survived and embraced the changes of the European styles
A short white shirt and a white linen full –length dress are the main components of the look
Long white briefs served as underwear, the traditional pështjellak was slightly wider than in other regions
The jelek (vest) was enriched with beads, mostly red
It could also contain golden threads
For formal events, they wore a small hat decorated with beads and golden studs
The socks in this costume were white, differently from other costumes’
Men’s clothing was less preserved, however throughout the years it appears as more unified
Men’s garments did not change much from region to region
One popular outfit was the one with ‘’fustanelle’’ (a version of a kilt) until 1914 the First Balkanic war
The most popular was the ‘’tirqi’’ apparel
The full look had elements which are similar to women’s (white shirt, tëlina, shokë, socks, opinga, jelek (vest) ),however the tirqi ( woolen white pants) were only a characteristic of men’s clothing
The shirt and the ‘tlina’ briefs were exclusively white
The shirts’ collars’ were T-shaped, and the sleeves of their shirts had white simple embroidery
From the waist up, men wore either jelek(vest) or xhamadan, a traditional woolen west which was usually white but was also found in dark colors
Men’s accessories were the ‘‘gajtan’’ – a long black cord, decorated push buttons in their jelek and xhamadanë, and metallic clasps
These vests were designed in such a way that enabled the bearer to move their hands freely, and the sleeves hung loosely back
The tirqi were always decorated around the waist, pockets and vertically in length with black seams
Men wore woolen white socks and cattle skin shoes
In their heads they wore plis, woolen caps, and marhama, a large white scarf which encircles the head and the neck, covering the plis
The marhama originated from Illyrians
Other accessories were qystek, a large golden chain which they put across their shoulders, sahati- a pocketwatch, a cigarette box along with a carved lighter and different silver rings
Occasionally, men held guns in their shokë
[18] The differences these clothes had from region to region were little – they might have been worn more tightly or loosely, the decorations in their tirqi might have been decorated with thicker or thinner seams
There were decorations which implied certain economic status, social status or societal hierarchy
For example, 3 golden threads in tirqi implied celibacy, whereas 12 golden threads implied wedlock
24 golden threads implied wealth and power, and the most occurring were in older men
The region of Podujevo is located in Northeastern Kosovo
Its tradition of clothing has not survived the modernization of clothing and the components of this look have become artifacts
The latest version of this clothing which are remembered consisted of ‘’tirqi’’ clothing for men and ‘’pështjellak’’ clothing for women
The items of clothing composing this apparel were somewhat similar to other regions’ clothing – tirqi, jelek, shoka, plisi, marhama and common accessories such as ‘’qystek’’- pocket watch, carved metallic cigarette box for men and ‘‘pështjellak’’, white shirts, ‘‘tëlina’’, ‘’shoka’’, ‘’opinga’’ – moccasins and head scarves for women
Women generally wore more accessories compared to other regions of Kosovo and their shirts had more embroidering with vivid colors
Both men’s and women’s clothing implied the bearer’s socioeconomic standing, based on what quality of material, quantity of embroidery, choice of colors, and ultimately the number of golden threads one had etched on the back of their shirts or ‘’mitan’’
Few remaining prototypes of this apparel are nowadays preserved in the Historical Museum of Pristina
Men’s clothing of Karadak consists of the shirt, tëlinat, vest, mitani, xhurdia, fur, socks, moccasins, plis and different accessories such as pocket watches, cigarette boxes and weapons
Shokë of young boys was whiter and it contained a lot of embroidery, whereas shoka of older men was maroon
Shirts of young boys and elderly men differed in width and length
The socks that were worn by the younger ones were decorated with different colors, whereas those of old men were simpler
Tirqi of youngsters and the so-called agzona men ( epithet of courage and pride ), were of the color black
Nowadays, in this region Muslims and Christians all wear the so-called Veshje me dimi ( traditional embroidered pants similar to pantaloons )
The clothing that is worn today is similar with the clothing that was worn in the second half of the 19th century which consists of tëlina, dimi, shirt, vest, mitani, pështjellak, socks, moccasins, head-scarf, and accessories such as earrings, bracelets, rings, necklaces and clasps
Veshja me dimi consists of pështjellak, made out of fur which is the most important item of the apparel and a shirt which is made out of silk or cotton fabric
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