Sugar Free Diet Plan

Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food
They are carbohydrates, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
There are various types of sugar derived from different sources
Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose and galactose
The table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide
(In the body, sucrose hydrolyses into fructose and glucose
) Other disaccharides include maltose and lactose
Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides
Chemically-different substances may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars
Some are used as lower-calorie food substitutes for sugar described as artificial sweeteners
Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but are present in sufficient concentrations for efficient extraction only in sugarcane and sugar beet
[citation needed] Sugarcane refers to any of several species of giant grass in the genus Saccharum that have been cultivated in tropical climates in South Asia and Southeast Asia since ancient times
A great expansion in its production took place in the 18th century with the establishment of sugar plantations in the West Indies and Americas
This was the first time that sugar became available to the common people, who had previously had to rely on honey to sweeten foods
Sugar beet, a cultivated variety of Beta vulgaris, is grown as a root crop in cooler climates and became a major source of sugar in the 19th century when methods for extracting the sugar became available
Sugar production and trade have changed the course of human history in many ways, influencing the formation of colonies, the perpetuation of slavery, the transition to indentured labour, the migration of peoples, wars between sugar-trade–controlling nations in the 19th century, and the ethnic composition and political structure of the New World
The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011
The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33
1 kg in industrialised countries), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day
Since the latter part of the twentieth century, it has been questioned whether a diet high in sugars, especially refined sugars, is good for human health
Sugar has been linked to obesity, and suspected of, or fully implicated as a cause in the occurrence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, macular degeneration, and tooth decay
Numerous studies have been undertaken to try to clarify the position, but with varying results, mainly because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that do not consume or are largely free of any sugar consumption
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity
The English word “sugar”[1] originates from the Sanskrit शर्करा śarkarā,[2] via Persian شکر shakkar
It most probably came to England by way of Italian merchants
The contemporary Italian word is zucchero, whereas the Spanish and Portuguese words, azúcar and açúcar respectively, have kept a trace of the Arabic definite article
The Old French word is zuchre – contemporary French sucre
The earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις (sákkʰaris)
[3][4] A satisfactory pedigree explaining the spread of the word has yet to be done
The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin; Portuguese xagara or jagara, from the Sanskrit śarkarā
Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent[6] since ancient times
It was not plentiful or cheap in early times and honey was more often used for sweetening in most parts of the world
Originally, people chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness
Sugarcane was a native of tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia
[7] Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S
edule and S
officinarum coming from New Guinea
[7][8] One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating back to 8th century BC that state that the use of sugarcane originated in India
Sugar remained relatively unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport
[10] Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century AD
[10] In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda (Devanagari:खण्ड,Khaṇḍa), which is the source of the word candy
Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar on the various trade routes they travelled
[10] Buddhist monks, as they travelled around, brought sugar crystallization methods to China
[12] During the reign of Harsha (r
606–647) in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang (r
626–649) made known his interest in sugar
China then established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century
[13] Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 AD, to obtain technology for sugar refining
[14] In South Asia, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts
The triumphant progress of Alexander the Great was halted on the banks of the Indus River by the refusal of his troops to go further east
They saw people in the Indian subcontinent growing sugarcane and making granulated, salt-like sweet powder, locally called Sharkara (Devanagari:शर्करा,Śarkarā), Latin saccharum, Greek ζάκχαρι (zakkhari)
On their return journey, the Macedonian soldiers carried the “honey-bearing reeds” home with them
Sugarcane remained a little-known crop in Europe for over a millennium, sugar a rare commodity, and traders in sugar wealthy
Crusaders brought sugar home with them to Europe after their campaigns in the Holy Land, where they encountered caravans carrying “sweet salt”
Early in the 12th century, Venice acquired some villages near Tyre and set up estates to produce sugar for export to Europe, where it supplemented honey, which had previously been the only available sweetener
[15] Crusade chronicler William of Tyre, writing in the late 12th century, described sugar as “very necessary for the use and health of mankind”
[16] In the 15th century, Venice was the chief sugar refining and distribution centre in Europe
In August 1492, Christopher Columbus stopped at La Gomera in the Canary Islands, for wine and water, intending to stay only four days
He became romantically involved with the governor of the island, Beatriz de Bobadilla y Ossorio, and stayed a month
When he finally sailed, she gave him cuttings of sugarcane, which became the first to reach the New World
The Portuguese took sugar to Brazil
By 1540, there were 800 cane sugar mills in Santa Catarina Island and there were another 2,000 on the north coast of Brazil, Demarara, and Surinam
The first sugar harvest happened in Hispaniola in 1501; and, many sugar mills had been constructed in Cuba and Jamaica by the 1520s
Sugar was a luxury in Europe prior to the 18th century, when it became more widely available
It then became popular and by the 19th century, sugar came to be considered a necessity
This evolution of taste and demand for sugar as an essential food ingredient unleashed major economic and social changes
[19] It drove, in part, colonization of tropical islands and nations where labor-intensive sugarcane plantations and sugar manufacturing could thrive
The demand for cheap labor to perform the hard work involved in its cultivation and processing increased the demand for the slave trade from Africa (in particular West Africa)
After slavery was abolished, there was high demand for indentured laborers from South Asia (in particular India)
[20][21][22] Millions of slave and indentured laborers were brought into the Caribbean and the Americas, Indian Ocean colonies, southeast Asia, Pacific Islands, and East Africa and Natal
The modern ethnic mix of many nations that have been settled in the last two centuries has been influenced by the demand for sugar
Sugar also led to some industrialization of former colonies
For example, Lieutenant J
Paterson, of the Bengal establishment, persuaded the British Government that sugar cane could be cultivated in British India with many advantages and at less expense than in the West Indies
As a result, sugar factories were established in Bihar in eastern India
During the Napoleonic Wars, sugar beet production increased in continental Europe because of the difficulty of importing sugar when shipping was subject to blockade
By 1880, the sugar beet was the main source of sugar in Europe
It was cultivated in Lincolnshire and other parts of England, although the United Kingdom continued to import the main part of its sugar from its colonies
Until the late nineteenth century, sugar was purchased in loaves, which had to be cut using implements called Sugar nips
[28] In later years, granulated sugar was more usually sold in bags
Sugar cubes were produced in the nineteenth century
The first inventor of a process to make sugar in cube form was Moravian Jakub Kryštof Rad, director of a sugar company in Dačice
He began sugar cube production after being granted a five-year patent for the invention on January 23, 1843
Henry Tate of Tate & Lyle was another early manufacturer of sugar cubes at his refineries in Liverpool and London
Tate purchased a patent for sugar cube manufacture from German Eugen Langen, who in 1872 had invented a different method of processing of sugar cubes
Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides, creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch)
Enzymes must hydrolyze or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolized
After digestion and absorption the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose, fructose, and galactose
Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures
In these closed-chain forms, the aldehyde or ketone group remains non-free, so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur
Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium, with less than 0
1% of the molecules in the open-chain form
Sugars are organic substances that burn easily upon exposure to an open flame
Because of this, the handling of sugars presents a risk for dust explosion
The 2008 Georgia sugar refinery explosion, which resulted in 14 deaths, 40 injured, and more than half of the facility’s destruction, was caused by the ignition of sugar dust
Fructose, galactose, and glucose are all simple sugars, monosaccharides, with the general formula C6H12O6
They have five hydroxyl groups (−OH) and a carbonyl group (C=O) and are cyclic when dissolved in water
They each exist as several isomers with dextro- and laevo-rotatory forms that cause polarized light to diverge to the right or the left
Lactose, maltose, and sucrose are all compound sugars, disaccharides, with the general formula C12H22O11
They are formed by the combination of two monosaccharide molecules with the exclusion of a molecule of water
The sugar contents of common fruits and vegetables are presented in Table 1
All data with a unit of g (gram) are based on 100 g of a food item
The fructose/glucose ratio is calculated by dividing the sum of free fructose plus half sucrose by the sum of free glucose plus half sucrose
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is a biennial plant[41] in the Family Amaranthaceae, the tuberous root of which contains a high proportion of sucrose
It is cultivated in temperate regions with adequate rainfall and requires a fertile soil
The crop is harvested mechanically in the autumn and the crown of leaves and excess soil removed
The roots do not deteriorate rapidly and may be left in a clamp in the field for some weeks before being transported to the processing plant
Here the crop is washed and sliced and the sugar extracted by diffusion
Milk of lime is added to the raw juice and carbonatated in a number of stages in order to purify it
Water is evaporated by boiling the syrup under a vacuum
The syrup is then cooled and seeded with sugar crystals
The white sugar that crystallizes out can be separated in a centrifuge and dried
It requires no further refining
Sugarcane (Saccharum spp
) is a perennial grass in the family Poaceae
It is cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions for the sucrose that is found in its stems
It requires a frost-free climate with sufficient rainfall during the growing season to make full use of the plant’s great growth potential
The crop is harvested mechanically or by hand, chopped into lengths and conveyed rapidly to the processing plant
Here, it is either milled and the juice extracted with water or extracted by diffusion
The juice is then clarified with lime and heated to kill enzymes
The resulting thin syrup is concentrated in a series of evaporators, after which further water is removed by evaporation in vacuum containers
The resulting supersaturated solution is seeded with sugar crystals and the sugar crystallizes out and is separated from the fluid and dried
Molasses is a by-product of the process and the fiber from the stems, known as bagasse, is burned to provide energy for the sugar extraction process
The crystals of raw sugar have a sticky brown coating and either can be used as they are or can be bleached by sulfur dioxide or can be treated in a carbonatation process to produce a whiter product
Refined sugar is made from raw sugar that has undergone a refining process to remove the molasses
[44][45] Raw sugar is a sucrose which is synthesized from sugarcane or sugar beet and cannot immediately be consumed before going through the refining process to produce refined sugar or white sugar
The sugar may be transported in bulk to the country where it will be used and the refining process often takes place there
The first stage is known as affination and involves immersing the sugar crystals in a concentrated syrup that softens and removes the sticky brown coating without dissolving them
The crystals are then separated from the liquor and dissolved in water
The resulting syrup is treated either by a carbonatation or by a phosphatation process
Both involve the precipitation of a fine solid in the syrup and when this is filtered out, many of the impurities are removed at the same time
Removal of colour is achieved by using either a granular activated carbon or an ion-exchange resin
The sugar syrup is concentrated by boiling and then cooled and seeded with sugar crystals, causing the sugar to crystallize out
The liquor is spun off in a centrifuge and the white crystals are dried in hot air and ready to be packaged or used
The surplus liquor is made into refiners’ molasses
[48] The International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis sets standards for the measurement of the purity of refined sugar, known as ICUMSA numbers; lower numbers indicate a higher level of purity in the refined sugar
Refined sugar is widely used for industrial needs for higher quality
Refined sugar is purer (ICUMSA below 300) than raw sugar (ICUMSA over 1,500)
[50] The level of purity associated with the colors of sugar, expressed by standard number ICUMSA (International Commission for Uniform Methods of sugar Analysis), the smaller ICUMSA numbers indicate that higher purity of sugar
The five largest producers of sugar in 2011 were Brazil, India, the European Union, China and Thailand
In the same year, the largest exporter of sugar was Brazil, distantly followed by Thailand, Australia and India
The largest importers were the European Union, United States and Indonesia
At present, Brazil has the highest per capita consumption of sugar, followed by Australia, Thailand, and the European Union
In most parts of the world, sugar is an important part of the human diet, making food more palatable and providing food energy
After cereals and vegetable oils, sugar derived from sugarcane and beet provided more kilocalories per capita per day on average than other food groups
[58] According to the FAO, an average of 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day, was consumed annually per person of all ages in the world in 1999
Even with rising human populations, sugar consumption is expected to increase to 25
1 kilograms (55 lb) per person per year by 2015
Data collected in multiple nationwide surveys between 1999 and 2008 show that the intake of added sugars has declined by 24 percent with declines occurring in all age, ethnic and income groups
The per capita consumption of refined sugar in the United States has varied between 27 and 46 kilograms (60 and 101 lb) in the last 40 years
In 2008, American per capita total consumption of sugar and sweeteners, exclusive of artificial sweeteners, equalled 61
9 kg (136 lb) per year
This consisted of 29
65 kg (65
4 lb) pounds of refined sugar and 31 kg (68
3 lb) pounds of corn-derived sweeteners per person
Some studies involving the health impact of sugars are effectively inconclusive
The FAO meta studies and WHO studies have shown directly contrasting impacts of sugar in refined and unrefined forms[64] and since most studies do not use a population that do not consume any “free sugars” at all, the baseline is effectively flawed
Hence, there are articles such as Consumer Reports on Health that stated in 2008, “Some of the supposed dietary dangers of sugar have been overblown
Many studies have debunked the idea that it causes hyperactivity, for example”
Sugar addiction is the term for the relationship between sugar and the various aspects of food addiction including “bingeing, withdrawal, craving and cross-sensitization”
Some scientists assert that consumption of sweets or sugar could have a heroin addiction-like effect
Claims have been made of a sugar–Alzheimer’s disease connection, but debate continues over whether cognitive decline is attributable to dietary fructose or to overall energy intake
It used to be believed[when?] that sugar raised blood glucose levels more quickly than did starch because of its simpler chemical structure
However, it turned out that white bread or French fries have the same effect on blood sugar as pure glucose,[citation needed] while fructose, although a simple carbohydrate, has a minimal effect on blood sugar
[citation needed] As a result, as far as blood sugar is concerned, carbohydrates are classified according to their glycemic index, a system for measuring how quickly a food that is eaten raises blood sugar levels, and glycemic load, which takes into account both the glycemic index and the amount of carbohydrate in the food
[69] This has led to carbohydrate counting, a method used by diabetics for planning their meals
Studies in animals have suggested that chronic consumption of refined sugars can contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction
Some experts have suggested that refined fructose is more damaging than refined glucose in terms of cardiovascular risk
[71] Cardiac performance has been shown to be impaired by switching from a carbohydrate diet including fiber to a high-carbohydrate diet
[72] Switching from saturated fatty acids to carbohydrates with high glycemic index values shows a statistically-significant increase in the risk of myocardial infarction
[73] Other studies have shown that the risk of developing coronary heart disease is decreased by adopting a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids but low in sugar, whereas a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet brings no reduction
This suggests that consuming a diet with a high glycemic load typical of the “junk food” diet is strongly associated with an increased risk of developing coronary heart disease
The consumption of added sugars has been positively associated with multiple measures known to increase cardiovascular disease risk amongst adolescents as well as adults
[75] Studies are suggesting that the impact of refined carbohydrates or high glycemic load carbohydrates are more significant than the impact of saturated fatty acids on cardiovascular disease
[76][77] A high dietary intake of sugar (in this case, sucrose or disaccharide) can substantially increase the risk of heart and vascular diseases
According to a Swedish study of 4301 people undertaken by Lund University and Malmö University College, sugar was associated with higher levels of bad blood lipids, causing a high level of small and medium low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
In contrast, the amount of fat eaten did not affect the level of blood fats
Incidentally quantities of alcohol and protein were linked to an increase in the good HDL blood fat
There is a common notion that sugar leads to hyperactivity, in particular in children, but studies and meta-studies tend to disprove this
[65] Some articles and studies do refer to the increasing evidence supporting the links between refined sugar and hyperactivity
[79][80][81] The WHO FAO meta-study suggests that such inconclusive results are to be expected when some studies do not effectively segregate or control for free sugars as opposed to sugars still in their natural form (entirely unrefined) while others do
[64] One study followed thirty-five 5-to-7-year-old boys who were reported by their mothers to be behaviorally “sugar-sensitive
” They were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups
In the experimental group, mothers were told that their children were fed sugar, and, in the control group, mothers were told that their children received a placebo
In fact, all children received the placebo, but mothers in the sugar expectancy condition rated their children as significantly more hyperactive
[82] This result suggests that the real effect of sugar is that it increases worrying among parents with preconceived notions
Controlled trials have now shown unequivocally that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages increases body weight and body fat, and that replacement of sugar by artificial sweeteners reduces weight
[83][84] Studies on the link between sugars and diabetes are inconclusive, with some suggesting that eating excessive amounts of sugar does not increase the risk of diabetes, although the extra calories from consuming large amounts of sugar can lead to obesity, which may itself increase the risk of developing this metabolic disease
[85][86][87][88][89][90] Other studies show correlation between refined sugar (free sugar) consumption and the onset of diabetes, and negative correlation with the consumption of fiber
[91][92][93][94] These included a 2010 meta-analysis of eleven studies involving 310,819 participants and 15,043 cases of type 2 diabetes
[95] This found that “SSBs (sugar-sweetened beverages) may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes not only through obesity but also by increasing dietary glycemic load, leading to insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and inflammation”
As an overview to consumption related to chronic disease and obesity, the World Health Organization’s independent meta-studies specifically distinguish free sugars (“all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups and fruit juices”) from sugars occurring naturally in food
The reports prior to 2000 set the limits for free sugars at a maximum of 10% of carbohydrate intake, measured by energy, rather than mass, and since 2002 have aimed for a level across the entire population of less than 10%
[64] The consultation committee recognized that this goal is “controversial
However, the Consultation considered that the studies showing no effect of free sugars on excess weight have limitations”
In regard to contributions to tooth decay, the role of free sugars is also recommended to be below an absolute maximum of 10% of energy intake, with a minimum of zero
There is “convincing evidence from human intervention studies, epidemiological studies, animal studies and experimental studies, for an association between the amount and frequency of free sugars intake and dental caries” while other sugars (complex carbohydrate) consumption is normally associated with a lower rate of dental caries
[96] Lower rates of tooth decay have been seen in individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance
Also, studies have shown that the consumption of sugar and starch have different impacts on oral health with the ingestion of starchy foods and fresh fruit being associated with low levels of dental caries
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends [98] that both adults and children reduce the intake of free sugars to less than 10% of total energy intake
A reduction to below 5% of total energy intake brings additional health benefits, especially in what regards dental caries
These recommendations were based on the totality of available evidence reviewed regarding the relationship between free sugars intake and body weight and dental caries
Free sugars include monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods and beverages by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, and sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates
Various culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture
Domino Sugar gives the following weight to volume conversions (in United States customary units):[99]
The “Engineering Resources – Bulk Density Chart” published in Powder and Bulk gives different values for the bulk densities:[100]

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